想没想过给你家的墙制件毛衣?
类别:材料工法
发布时间:2019-01-10
分享建议


译文

From:CSI美国施工规范学会


为了更严密更好的隔热建筑,建筑能源法规继续朝着提高能源效率的方向转变。与此同时,在建筑环境中关注室内空气质量(IAQ)以及——向健康空间的相应运动——正在获得支持。因此,越来越多的建筑和施工专业人员选择在他们的项目中使用高性能和环保的材料。


 

羊毛中的氨基酸可防止有毒化学物质脱气体排放到空气中。因此,羊毛隔热材料起到了空气净化作用,有助于改善室内空气质量(IAQ)。


隔热材料一般被视为一种商品,而大家对所使用的材料类型及其特定性质很少关注。美国隔热材料市场一直以一系列符合R值要求的产品为主,但没有考虑到隔热材料的“透气性”和防止冷凝的能力。(有关隔热和R值的更多信息,请点击此处。)


一些常见的隔热类型是:

· 玻璃纤维;

· 喷涂聚氨酯硬泡(SPF);

· 纤维

· 矿棉 

· 绵羊羊毛

室内空气质量

虽然所有类型的隔热材料都能“完成工作”,但它们各不相同。一些类型对健康的潜在影响日益受到关注。在解决健康问题时,不仅要考虑安装隔热层时可见的不良反应,还要考虑由于材料无法有效控制湿气而导致的将来影响,导致霉菌生长。


从瘙痒、呼吸系统不适到流感类症状甚至肺部疾病,暴露在隔热材料和其他建筑材料中的后果开始引起更多关注。


日益流行的健康建筑运动的一个重点是改善室内空气质量并减少材料中毒素的使用。根据环境保护署(EPA)的一项研究,美国人近90%的时间都在室内。但是,由于通风不良以及从地板、油漆到家具等产品中有毒化学物质的气体排放,室内空气的毒性通常比外界高2-5倍。


 哈佛大学Chan公共卫生学院 的Joe Allen博士一项开创性的研究考察了绿色建筑对认知功能的影响。研究期间,办公室工作者暴露于不同程度的二氧化碳(CO 2)、挥发性有机化合物(VOC)和通风条件下。然后研究人员对研究对象在信息搜寻、策划和任务定向等领域中关键任务的表现进行测算。平均地说,在VOC含量低的建筑中参与者的认知得分高出61%,而在通风率高的建筑物中参与者的得分高出101%。那么,建筑行业如何使建筑物更健康?


天然的最好

一种中和潜在有毒的建筑材料对空间使用者的负面影响的方法是选择“呼吸”的隔热材料,例如羊毛隔热层。


羊毛是一种含氨基酸的高完整性的纤维,经过科学证明,可与化学物质(如甲醛,氮氧化物和二氧化硫)不可逆地结合从而防止它们排放和释放到空气中。因此,羊毛隔热材料起到了空气净化的作用,帮助改善室内空气质量。

绵羊的羊毛

天然隔热体绵羊羊毛已经发展了数千年,可保护动物不受影响。天然羊毛纤维是卷曲的,当它们堆在一起时,会形成数百万个小气穴,在冬季和夏季吸收空气并保持温度。这种卷曲还可以有助于羊毛保持其厚度和隔热效率。


羊毛隔热具有很强的导热性和湿度管理性能。


由于羊毛纤维能够吸收高达35%的净重湿气,相对于65%的相对湿度(RH),因此羊毛隔热有助于消除建筑物内的水珠和湿气。


当羊毛纤维吸收湿气时,会产生少量热量。这种温暖通过在潮湿条件下将温度保持在结露点以上来防止建筑物内部的冷凝,使得羊毛在湿度管理方面非常有效。因此,霉菌的形成机会及相关健康风险大程度地减小。


从导热性角度来看,羊毛胜过其他所有隔热类型(喷雾泡沫除外)。虽然它的R值约为每英寸3.6至4.3,但由于其强大的导热性和湿气管理性能,羊毛隔热层的性能通常高于此值。


羊毛隔热材料不含有害化学物质。并且这种材料处理起来安全,无尘,在安装过程中不需要防护服。


羊毛保温的好处

利用自然方法设计和建造,天然羊毛隔热材料可持续、可再生又节能。它也是一种高效的隔音材料,可减少进入建筑物的噪音和房间之间的噪音。


另外,为了建筑物的使用寿命,羊毛通常保持其温度和隔音性能。而如果它是一种寻求扩张而非收缩的致密纤维,它将不能做到这些。当它超过其使用寿命时,可以用来回收或堆肥和生物降解。


  


此外,羊毛作为纤维,其完整性减少了在生产过程中对胶水、粘合剂或高热量的需求,这会导致非常低的净能。羊毛还是阻燃自熄的。


虽然安装吹入式材料的机器稍有不同,但羊毛隔热和吹入式绝热材料的安装方式与其他类型的绝热材料类似。任何熟练的专业人员都可以轻松安装羊毛绝热层。


这种类型的产品所面临的主要挑战之一是大家不愿意指定它。建筑商和安装人员不喜欢偏离习惯做法,同时也不愿在激烈的竞争环境下增加成本。 虽然羊毛绝热的成本比传统绝热材料更高,但在寿命、降低能耗和健康的室内空气质量方面付出的代价更大。


创建一个更智能的墙

由于效率是建筑方程中的焦点,因此有责任建筑密封的结构。虽然取暖和空调成本可以降到最低,但密闭的建筑围护结构会产生固有挑战,对此需要重新评估。湿气会不可避免进入墙洞。因此处理蒸汽侵入的方式对智能建筑极为重要。


长期以来,泡沫绝热被认为是密封的最佳解决方式。然而,由于这些系统的故障率因收缩、开裂或其他问题而上升,对替代品的需求也在增加。


结合绵羊羊毛的墙壁形成了一种低能量、亲生物的墙体系统设计和施工方法,充分利用了密封效率,同时不会破坏固有的蒸气驱动。它们由无毒害材料制成,可以构建出持久耐用的建筑外壳,从而提供舒适、健康和效率,没有腐蚀、霉菌或其他维护和健康问题。整体膜的设计成允许密封性,同时为无法避免的蒸气提供散放路线。


结论

随着越来越多的建筑师和建筑商寻求改善我们居住的空间,建筑材料变得越来越“智能”和更适应需求。为了有更智能、更健康的建筑和人员,我们可以将自然原理与技术创新和制造相结合,与自然协调工作,而不是与之对抗。


作者 

Andrew Legge是天然羊毛绝热解决方案供应商Havelock Wool的管理合伙人。Legge对新西兰所有事情充满热情,他成功利用其在投资管理和业务发展方面的经验,以加强新西兰与美国之间的双向贸易。他拥有汉普敦悉尼学院的历史学学士学位和芝加哥大学布斯商学院的工商管理硕士学位。您可通过awl@havelock.wool与他联系。




原文:

A smart, natural wool insulation for healthy buildings

by Andrew Legge

Building energy codes continue to shift in the direction of increased energy efficiency, resulting in tighter and better insulated buildings. At the same time, a focus on indoor air quality (IAQ) in the built environment—and a corresponding movement toward healthier spaces—is gaining traction. As a result, a growing number of building and construction professionals are choosing to utilize high-performance, environmentally responsible materials in their projects.

Insulation has generally been viewed as a commodity item, with minimal attention paid to the type of material used and its particular properties. The U.S. insulation market has been dominated by a range of products that meet the required R-values, but do not take into consideration the ‘breathability’ of the insulation and its ability to discourage condensation. (For more information on insulation and R-values, click here.)

Some of the common insulation types are:

· fiberglass;

· sprayed polyurethane foam (SPF);

· cellulose;

· mineral wool; and

· sheep’s wool.

Indoor air quality

While all types of insulation will ‘get the job done,’ all of them are not equal. Of growing concern are the potential health impacts of some varieties. When addressing health concerns, it is important to consider not only the adverse reactions observed when installing the insulation, but also future effects caused by the material’s inability to effectively manage moisture, resulting in the growth of mold and mildew.

From itching and respiratory irritation to flu-like symptoms and even lung disease, the effects of exposure to insulation and other building materials are beginning to attract more attention.

A key focus of the growing healthy building movement is improving IAQ and reducing the use of toxins in materials. According to an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study, Americans spend almost 90 percent of their time indoors. However, indoor air is typically two to five times more toxic than outside because of poor ventilation and off-gassing of toxic chemicals from products ranging from flooring and paint to furniture.

A groundbreaking study by Dr. Joe Allen of Harvard’s Chan School of Public Health examined the impact of green buildings on cognitive function. During the study, office occupants were exposed to varying levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and ventilation. Researchers then measured the subjects’ performances on critical tasks in areas such as information seeking, strategy, and task orientation. On average, the participants’ cognitive scores were 61 percent higher in buildings with low VOC levels, and 101 percent higher in buildings that also had higher ventilation rates. So, how can the building industry make structures healthier?

Nature does it best

One way to counteract the negative effects of potentially toxic building materials on the occupants of a space is to choose insulation that ‘breathes,’ such as wool insulation.

Wool is a high-integrity fiber comprising amino acids, scientifically proven to irreversibly bond with (trap) chemicals (e.g.formaldehyde, nitrogen oxide, and sulfur dioxide) and thereby prevent them from off-gassing and escaping into the air. As a result, wool insulation acts as an air cleaner, helping to improve IAQ.

Sheep’s wool

A natural insulator, sheep’s wool has evolved over thousands of years to protect the animal from the elements. Natural wool fibers are crimped and, when packed together, form millions of tiny air pockets, trapping air and keeping warmth in during the winter and out in the summer. This crimping also helps wool to retain its thickness and insulation efficiency.

Since the fiber is able to absorb up to 35 percent of its net weight in moisture against up to 65 percent relative humidity (RH), wool insulation helps to eliminate condensation and moisture within a structure.

When wool fibers absorb moisture, they generate small amounts of heat. This warmth prevents condensation in structures by maintaining the temperature above the dewpoint in damp conditions, making wool highly effective at moisture management. Therefore, the chance for mold or mildew formation—and the associated health risks—is significantly minimized.

Wool outperforms all other insulation types (except for sprayfoam) from a thermal conductivity perspective. While it has an R-value of approximately 3.6 to 4.3 per inch, wool insulation typically outperforms this value due to its strong thermal conductivity and moisture management properties.

Wool insulation does not contain harmful chemicals. The material is also safe to handle, dust-free, and does not require protective clothing during installation.

Benefits of wool insulation

Utilizing a biophilic approach to design and construction, natural wool insulation is at once sustainable, renewable, and energy efficient. It is also a highly effective acoustic insulator, reducing the noise entering a building and the noise between rooms.

Additionally, wool typically maintains its thermal and acoustic insulation performance for the lifespan of a structure. Given it is a dense fiber seeking to expand rather than contract, it will not settle. When it has exceeded its useful life, it can be recycled or composted and biodegraded.

Further, wool’s integrity as a fiber eliminates the need—during the production process—for glues, bonding agents, or high heat, resulting in a very low net embodied energy. Wool is also naturally flame-resistant and self-extinguishing.

Wool insulation batts and blow-in insulation are installed in a manner similar to other types of insulation, although the machinery to install the blow-in variety is slightly different. Any skilled professionals can easily install wool insulation.

One of the primary challenges posed by this type of product is a reluctance to specify it. Builders and installers do not like to deviate from customary practices and are, at the same time, hesitant to add cost in an already competitive landscape. While wool insulation does cost more than its traditional counterpart, it more than pays for itself in in terms of longevity, lower energy costs, and healthier IAQ.

Creating a smarter wall

As efficiency becomes more of a focal point in the building equation, there is an onus to build airtight structures. While heating and air-conditioning costs can be minimized, airtight building envelopes create inherent challenges requiring reassessment. Inevitably, moisture finds its way into wall cavities. The way in which vapor intrusion is handled is paramount to building intelligently.


Foam insulation has long been viewed as the optimal solution for airtightness. However, as failure rates of these systems rise because of shrinkage, cracking, and other issues, so too does the need for alternatives.

Walls incorporating sheep wool form a low-energy, biophilic approach to wall system design and construction, leveraging the efficiency of airtightness without disrupting inherent vapor drive. They are made of nontoxic materials and structured to create a long-lasting building enclosure, delivering comfort, health, and efficiency without rot, mold, or other maintenance and health issues. The monolithic membranes are designed to allow for airtightness while offering an escape route for inevitable vapor.

Conclusion

As more architects and builders seek to improve the spaces we inhabit, building materials become increasingly ‘intelligent’ and adaptive. By interweaving natural principles with technological innovation and manufacturing, it is possible to work in harmony with nature rather than against it to create smarter, healthier buildings and people.

Andrew Legge is managing partner of Havelock Wool, a provider of natural wool insulation solutions. Legge has a passion for all things New Zealand and successfully leverages his experience in investment management and business development to enhance two-way trade between New Zealand and the United States. He holds a bachelor’s degree in history from Hampden-Sydney College and an MBA from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. He can be reached at awl@havelock.wool.




新动态
一米,改变千里

“一米,改变千里”原意來自“世上无难事,只要肯登攀”,出處為毛泽东的词:水调歌头重上井冈山,1965年5月久有凌云志,重上井冈山,千里来寻故地旧貌变新颜到处莺歌燕舞,更有潺潺流水,高路入云端过了黄洋界,险处不须看风雷动旌旗奋是人寰。

三十八年过去弹指一挥间可上九天揽月可下五洋捉鳖,谈笑凯歌还世上无难事只要肯登攀。


相近意思的成语有:只要功夫深,铁杵磨成针;精诚所至,金石为开;世上无难事,只怕有心人;不积硅步无以至千里,不积小流无以成江海;合抱之木,生于毫末;九层之台,起于累土;千里之行,始于足下;书山有路勤为径,学海无涯苦作舟。


新动态
苟日新,日日新,又日新

《苟日新,日日新,又日新》选自中国儒家经典礼记.大学》,该章为《大学》的第二章,《大学》原本是《礼记》中一篇,传为孔子弟子曾参(前505434年)战国时期作。主要讲述了苟日新,日日新,又日新” 就是从勤于省身和动态的角度来强调及时反省和不断革新,加强思想革命化的问题关键。是中国古代的商朝帝王成汤的座右铭,倡导代表人类不断发展和积极进取的精神,是一个日积月累的变化,从量变到达质变的必然趋势和结果,是人类思想进步和物质创新的哲学。

苟日新,日日新,又日新被刻在商汤王的洗澡盆上,本来是说洗澡的问题:假如今天把一身的污垢洗干净了,以后便要天天把污垢洗干净,这样一天一天的下去,每人都要坚持。引申出来,精神上的洗礼,品德上的修炼,思想上的改造又何尝不是这样呢?《礼记·儒行》所说的澡身而浴德苟日新,日日新,又日新无论如何展示的是一种革新的姿态,驱动人们弃旧图新。所以,你不仅可以像商汤王一样把它刻在洗澡盆上,而且也可以把它刻在床头、案头,使它成为你的座右铭。


建议分享
您如果愿意分享行业新知识、著作、文章、观点、推荐APP或有好点子如商业计划等,想与行业同学脑力激荡的,请电邮联系我们sharing@1m.com.cn
  • 注册
会员注册
学会选用微信为沟通渠道,请您填妥个人资料后,扫描学会公众号二维码,并点击下列“注册”,我们会及时的将行业“新动态”分享给您;稍后,学会义工也会微信您,请您开通,使我们的沟通无障碍;会员注册完成后,您将得到下载“品经典”及上登“米讲堂”的钥匙;另外,我们推荐您参加下列“找专家”频道的选项,享受学会社群的全面触感。
请正确填写,以便日后密码遗忘时找回
扫一扫,关注学会公众号
专家注册(选项)
1.友情提示:
如果您对”专家注册”选项进行勾选,就代表您自愿以职业化的态度,成为学会的实名认证专家;
2.学会会将您的相关信息(包含姓名、地区、擅长领域、电子邮件地址),呈现于”找专家”频道,向潜在客户及同行推荐。
  • 行业
  • 专业
如果您认可学会价值,欢迎在朋友圈中发送推广
成为专家
1.友情提示:
如果您对”专家注册”选项进行勾选,就代表您自愿以职业化的态度,成为学会的实名认证专家;
2.学会会将您的相关信息(包含姓名、地区、擅长领域、电子邮件地址),呈现于”找专家”频道,向潜在客户及同行推荐。
  • 行业
  • 专业
义工报名
集结号已响,号召侠肝义胆,见义勇为之士,加入仁义之军,进化行业价值,提升行业地位。 学会是非盈利公益组织,日常的活动,需要义工协助,贡献时间的多少,由您决定,您如愿意 加入,请填写确认下列资讯报名,之后学会会微信和您联系并赠送礼品一份,保证您会满意。...
行业选择(可多选)
  • 建筑设计
  • 建筑工程
  • 室內设计
  • 装修工程
  • 机电设计
  • 机电工程
  • 专业工种
  • 材料机具设备
  • 其它
  • 取消
    确定
专业选择(可多选)
  • 设计
  • 项目管理
  • 工地管理
  • 工厂管理
  • 估价
  • 采购
  • 维修
  • 法务审计
  • 人事
  • 财务
  • IT
  • 市场
  • 其他
  • 取消
    确定
友情提示
温馨提示 请先登录/注册会员 以享有会员独享功能
确认